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  • Тип файла:
    ppt / pptx (powerpoint)
  • Всего слайдов:
    27 слайдов
  • Для класса:
    1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
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    3.15 MB
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Слайды и текст к этой презентации:

№1 слайд
Ethics and Human Rights in
Содержание слайда: Ethics and Human Rights in Medicine and Medical Research SCORP sessions MM 2019, Slovenia Juliette Matijssen & Anouk Nusselder

№2 слайд
What are medical ethics? What
Содержание слайда: What are medical ethics? What are medical ethics? Why do we as future care professionals need medical ethics? What ethical principles do you know of? Where are ethical norms derived from? How do ethics and human rights relate?

№3 слайд
Ethics amp Human Rights?
Содержание слайда: Ethics & Human Rights? Ethics, from ēthos, “practice, custom” Ethics is about doing the right thing. Fundamental question: What is right and what is wrong? Human rights and medical ethics are complementary (why?). The use of the two together maximizes the protection available to vulnerable patients.

№4 слайд
Medical ethics very
Содержание слайда: Medical ethics: very complex... There are some easy guidelines and tools to tackle difficult ethical situations (e.g. ABCDEF) But they are several different principles when it comes to medical ethics Principlism Hermeneutic ethics/dialogical ethics Care ethics Pragmatism Virtue ethics

№5 слайд
Principlism Four principles
Содержание слайда: Principlism Four principles Respect for autonomy (A, C) Beneficence (B) Non-maleficence (D) Justice (E,F) Specifying and balancing Reflective equilibrium

№6 слайд
ABCDEF Principlism as easy as
Содержание слайда: ABCDEF Principlism: as easy as ABCDEF?

№7 слайд
A - Autonomy Self rule -
Содержание слайда: A - Autonomy “Self rule” - Competent, informed patients have the right to choose among treatment options and refuse any unwanted medical interventions. Self-determination Informed consent No treatment without consent, unless… No participation in medical research without consent, unless…

№8 слайд
B - Beneficence Physicians
Содержание слайда: B - Beneficence Physicians must act in the best interests of their patients. Maximize health Prolong life Weigh and balance possible benefits against possible risks of an action. Beneficence can also include protecting and defending the rights

№9 слайд
C - Confidentiality
Содержание слайда: C - Confidentiality Confidentiality respects patient autonomy. Encourages patients to be candid. Can confidentiality be overridden?

№10 слайд
D - Do No Harm The principle
Содержание слайда: D - Do No Harm The principle of nonmaleficence directs physicians to “do no harm” to patients. Physicians must refrain from providing ineffective treatments or acting with malice toward patients. The pertinent ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the burdens. (B, D) The patient decides (A, B, D)

№11 слайд
E - Equality Equity The
Содержание слайда: E - Equality/Equity The principle of distributive justice deals with issues of treating patients equally. Economic Justice – Fair share of resources Physicians should treat similarly situated patients similarly and allocate resources justly. Limited health care resources → practice cost-effective medicine.

№12 слайд
F - Fairness The principle of
Содержание слайда: F - Fairness The principle of procedural justice requires that the process for making decisions for patients be fair and just. Fair treatment of individuals by institutions Set guidelines → Unbiased decisions More likely that patients accept outcomes they don’t like.

№13 слайд
ABCDE A - Autonomy B -
Содержание слайда: ABCDE A - Autonomy B - Beneficence C - Confidentiality D - Do no harm E - Equality/equity F - Fairness

№14 слайд
ABCDEF Medical ethics really
Содержание слайда: ABCDEF Medical ethics: really as easy as ABCDEF?

№15 слайд
Principlism Individualist
Содержание слайда: Principlism Individualist approach Focus on autonomy, privacy and confidentiality Patients are seen as individuals Self-determination Privacy Support decision-making of patients Informed consent

№16 слайд
Care ethics Relational
Содержание слайда: Care ethics Relational approach Context and interpretation, sharing and negotiation of responsibilities Patients are seen as part of a relational context Self-realization Commitments Support people to live a life with dependencies and responsibilities towards others Deliberation on values

№17 слайд
Care ethics Origin feminist
Содержание слайда: Care ethics Origin: feminist critique in the 1980’s Basic ideas: All individuals are interdependent for achieving their interests. The vulnerable need to be cared for. Contexts and individual situations are of fundamental importance in deciding what is wrong or right. Importance of lived experience “How can I meet my caring responsibility?”

№18 слайд
Hermeneutic Dialogical Ethics
Содержание слайда: Hermeneutic/Dialogical Ethics hermēneuein: to interpret Meaning is related to lived experience Understanding is always partial and dialogue is needed Reciprocity between dialogue partners Deliberative model Negotiated consent rather than informed consent (autonomy is not regarded as the right to choose without interference, but as a process of moral development). Interpretation is not a matter of theoretical insight, but of practical moral experience.

№19 слайд
Tools Principles, values and
Содержание слайда: Tools Principles, values and virtues

№20 слайд
To summarize ABCDEF easy tool
Содержание слайда: To summarize ABCDEF: easy tool to medical ethics But in practice: way more complex and many different ethical models/principles Principlism Hermeneutic ethics/dialogical ethics Care ethics Pragmatisme Virtue ethics

№21 слайд
Ethics in medical research
Содержание слайда: Ethics in medical research video!

№22 слайд
Ethical medical research The
Содержание слайда: Ethical medical research The Helsinki declaration (2013) ETHICAL PRINCIPLES FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS Article 16 “In medical practice and in medical research, most interventions involve risks and burdens. Medical research involving human subjects may only be conducted if the importance of the objective outweighs the risks and burdens to the research subjects.”

№23 слайд
Ethical medical research
Содержание слайда: Ethical medical research (1) value (2) scientific validity (3) fair subject selection (4) favorable risk-benefit ratio— (5) independent review (6) informed consent (7) respect for enrolled subjects

№24 слайд
Ethical medical research
Содержание слайда: Ethical medical research → Exploitation Community exploitation vs. individual exploitation Exploitation: unfairness in distribution of benefits and burdens involved in specific transactions. Coercion is the use of threats, in that sense that consent would be invalid as participants were or thought they were being threatened.

№25 слайд
Ethical medical research Are
Содержание слайда: Ethical medical research Are the risks/benefits fair for both sides? Individual benefits =/ community benefits Why has the company chosen to conduct study X on this community? Is there a possibility for coercion (using vulnerability as an opportunity)?

№26 слайд
Cases Values Virtues Process
Содержание слайда: Cases Values Virtues Process Outcome Reflection

№27 слайд
Reflection
Содержание слайда: Reflection

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