Презентация Legal translation онлайн

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№1 слайд
Legal translation is the
Содержание слайда: Legal translation is the translation of texts within the field of law. As law is a culture-dependent subject field, the work of legal translation and its products are not necessarily linguistically transparent. Translation of legal texts is one of the most complex types of translation and it has an expressly dual character. The duty of the translator is to study and comprehend not only the grammatical differences in each language, but also the specific legal systems pertaining to the source and target languages, for which the translator might need to consult specialists of relevant legal branches. Only professional translators specialising in legal translation should translate legal documents and scholarly writings. The mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text (ST) is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text (TT) is to be read by someone who is familiar with the other legal system (corresponding to the jurisdiction for which TT is prepared) and its language. Most forms of legal writing, and contracts in particular, seek to establish clearly defined rights and duties for certain individuals. It is essential to ensure precise correspondence of these rights and duties in the source text and in the translation. Legal translation may also involve, certificates of accuracy, witness statements, depositions, trusts, wills, articles of incorporation, litigation documents, immigration documents, property/exhibit labels and in some cases attendance in court by the translator(s).

№2 слайд
There is a confusion between
Содержание слайда: There is a confusion between the names of some of the translation standards used in legal practice. Not many lawyers and judges are familiar with the terminology used in translation theory, and they often ask court interpreters and translators to provide verbatim translation. They often view this term as a clear standard of quality that they desire in TT. However, usually it does not mean to provide verbatim translation in the meaning of the standard described in translation theory with which they are not familiar. Their use of this term is based on a layperson's misconception that an accurate translation is achieved simply when "the correct" words of the target language are substituted for the corresponding words of ST. In reality, they just want to have a faithful and fluent translation of ST having no doubt that a good translator will provide it. Translators of legal texts often consult law dictionaries, especially bilingual law dictionaries. Care should be taken, as some bilingual law dictionaries are of poor quality and their use may lead to mistranslation.

№3 слайд
Types of legal translation
Содержание слайда: Types of legal translation Translation of laws and other normative acts and their drafts; Translation of contracts and draft contracts; Translation of court judgments, case law and judicature; Translation of documents instituting proceedings, complaints, applications; Translation of power of attorneys; Translation of opinions and expert reports.

№4 слайд
Translating for legal
Содержание слайда: Translating for legal equivalence is the production of translations that are acceptable by a legal jurisdiction. For legal and official purposes, evidentiary documents and other official documentation are usually required in the official language(s) of a jurisdiction. In some countries, it is a requirement for translations of such documents that a translator swear an oath to attest that it is the legal equivalent of the source text. Often, only translators of a special class are authorized to swear such oaths. In some cases, the translation is only accepted as a legal equivalent if it is accompanied by the original or a sworn or certified copy of it. Even if a translator specializes in legal translation or is a lawyer in his country, this does not necessarily make him a sworn translator. The procedure for translating to legal equivalence differs from country to country. Germany German regional courts (Landgerichte) have the power to appoint "sworn translators". The specific title and the appointment procedure are different in each state. In most cases, the candidates are required to pass an examination. United States of America The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics states: "There is currently no universal form of certification required of interpreters and translators in the United States, but there are a variety of different tests that workers can take to demonstrate proficiency."

№5 слайд
Specific character of
Содержание слайда: Specific character of translation of legal texts The translator must translate the text of the source language in such a way as to exactly convey in the translation the contents of the original document and that the translation would have the same legal effect as the original document. At this stage the translator becomes a creator of a new text, bearing the responsibility that the translation will not create unnecessary legal consequences. When translating legal texts and documents, it is mandatory to adhere to the rules for designing and drawing up documents. The complexity of legal texts is formed by the level of difficulty, differences in the conceptual structure, semantic structure of sentences and style differences, therefore an important precondition for the translator of legal texts is preparation time, during which the translator must look into the contents of the document, compare terminology and recognize the main differences between the legal systems of the source and target languages.

№6 слайд
When dealing with legal
Содержание слайда: When dealing with legal translations, the translator should always remember that: the texts are full of legal terms and expressions that require special attention; text may be written in one legal system and the translation is intended for a different legal system; some of the language constructs of the source language are not synonyms in the target language; work with special legal literature is indispensable.   Например, большинству русскоязычных не известны такие явления, как primaries – предварительные выборы, определяющие кандидатов в президенты от двух политических партий в США: Before voting every citizen must register in accordance with the laws of his state. This gives him the right of participating in primaries. Перед голосованием каждый гражданин должен зарегистрироваться в соответствии с законами своего штата. Это дает ему право принять участие в предварительных выборах. Venire – категория лиц, могущих исполнять функции присяжных: The juries are selected from a larger panel of citizens, commonly known as the venire. Судебные присяжные выбираются из более широкого круга граждан, обычно известного как категория лиц, могущих исполнять функции присяжных. Vior dire – допрос присяжных для выявления их возможной предубежденности: The prospective jurors are generally subject to further interrogation about their possible biases. This examination is known as viordire. Предполагаемые присяжные обычно подвергаются дальнейшему допросу на предмет их возможной предубежденности. Эта процедура носит название vior dire. Solicitor – поверенный, солиситор (ведет дела клиентов, подготавливает дела для адвокатов): A solicitor, acting under a general retainer, has an implied authority to accept service of process for his client… Солиситор, действующий на основании общего договора с адвокатом, имеет подразумеваемое полномочие брать на себя обслуживание клиента в ходе судебного разбирательства…

№7 слайд
The translational problem is
Содержание слайда: The translational problem is to bring both these aspects together: looking at the content of the legal background and at the language level. The translator has a double perspective. The central prerequisite of translation as a dynamic task for the translator is to comprehend the given text within an adequate legal perspective. And specialized translation in the field of law requires the formulation of communicatively adequate technical texts in the other language. For this purpose, one needs a “well-grounded understanding” based on subject knowledge gained through research, since a merely intuitive, naïve interpretation of legal texts would be inadequate. In the hermeneutical approach to texts, the translators have a double perspective and need a system of orientation. This system is presented in the following Table 1.

№8 слайд
Table .Fields of orientation
Содержание слайда: Table 1.Fields of orientation in translation. Positioning of text: Textual background Legal world : culture with its own law system (European continental/Anglo-Saxon/Arabic/Chinese) Form of legislation continental law/ case law/ supra-national law/ law in other regions Text genre macro-structure of text type (paragraph of code, court sentence, certificate, contract, document, etc.) Field of law criminal, civil, administrative, works,trade, family, international law, etc. of the country Legal concepts levels of abstraction of concept and lexis on the text level Legal style precision and anonymity in civil law, individual style in common law, standard formulae, speech acts Rhetoric Formulating Text function transparency for source text function,documentary translation, orientation markers, translation assignment Terminology state of equivalence of concepts to be checked, translation principle of “common denominator” of concept, literal translation of terms Language information official language, speech acts and verbal tense, sentence perspective, phraseology, technical word compounding, inclusive style Standardization & archaic forms, standard procedural formulae  

№9 слайд
For example, Russian
Содержание слайда:  For example, Russian typically uses the present tense, while English uses the future “shall.”  “Сторона принимает на себяобязательства” is translated as “The Party shall assume the obligations.”  On the other hand, if Russian uses the past tense, English will use the present.  “Стороны договорились о нижеследующем” is translated as “The Parties agree as set forth below.”  As seen in one of the examples above, Russian uses the word “сторона,” or “side,” to designate one of the participants of the contract/agreement, while English uses the word “Party.”  Why do these differences exist?  I do not know.  All I can say is that each language has developed its own set of rules and its own legal traditions, thereby complicating the task of the translator.

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